Ebola is a rare virus, and it is also deadly. The infection can cause body aches, diarrhea, fever, and for the worst-case a, bleeding outside and inside of the body. The virus spreads through the body, then damages the organs and the immune system. Eventually, it will cause levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. It may then lead to severe, uncontrollable bleeding.
The Ebola Virus Disease, also known as EVD, is a deadly disease that most likely to affect people and nonhuman primates such as chimpanzees, gorillas, and monkeys. The strain is composed of an infection with a group of viruses within the gene of Ebolavirus: Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus) and Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus).
1.1 The Ebola History
The deadly disease is named after the Ebola River. It is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo where the virus is first reported. It is first classifies as a CDC Biosafety Level 4, also known as BSL-4, making it one of the most dangerous pathogens of the world. It is known to spread through close contact with body secretions. The EHF (Ebola hemorrhagic fever) has a 50 to 90 percent mortality rate. It has rapid onset symptoms that start out with a sore throat and headache, then progress to major external and internal bleeding, then eventually to multiple organ failure. However, there is no known cure for the virus. The most recent cases are reported to be at the end of 2012 in Uganda.
Here are the ways on how to prevent yourself from getting the virus:
If you are in an outbreak area, avoid infected people. Their body fluids and the bodies of anyone who has died from the disease can still be contagious. Avoid contact with wild animals such as monkeys, bats, and also avoid their meats.
There are some other ways to be infected with Ebola, which includes touching contaminated surfaces or needles. Most likely, a person cannot be infected with Ebola from water, air, or food. Also, a person that has been affected with the virus nut has no symptoms cannot spread the disease.
Back in 1967, a group of experts in Germany (Marburg and Frankfurt) and Serbia (then Yugoslavia) caught a disease, which is a new type of hemorrhagic fever. It came from virus-carrying African green monkeys that they had come in contact with. The monkeys were imported for research and development for the polio vaccines.
2.1 About The Virus
The Marburg virus is also classified as BSL-4, and Marburg hemorrhagic fever has a 23 to 90 percent death rate. The disease is spread through close human-to-human contact. The symptoms start out as a headache, fever, and a rash o the trunk. It will then lead to multiple organ failure and severe internal bleeding.
For the Marburg virus, there is still no cure, and the latest reported case is from Uganda in the later month of 2012. One example of the Marburg virus is an American tourist who explored the Ugandan cave full of fruit bats that are known to be reservoirs of the virus. The tourist then caught the disease and survived in 2008.
2.2 Working On The Cure
As follows, researchers are working on a variety of vaccines that would defend people from both Ebola and Marburg viruses. Some of the results are already promising. However, further research and testing should be accomplished.
Here are some precautions to avoid the virus. The prevention of Marburg is to avoid making contact with the virus. Refrain in going to places that are known for outbreaks. Before traveling to Africa, do some research about the current epidemics. You could check the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
Frequently wash your hands. Just like any other infectious disease, frequent hand-washing is one of the essential preventive measures. Use soap and water; however, if you are in a situation that soap and water are not available to carry with you and alcohol-based hand rubs that contain at least 60 percent alcohol. Avoid bush meat. In some developing countries, the local markets sell nonhuman primates. Thus, refrain from eating or buying wild animals.
Refrain in contact with infected people. To be more specific, caregivers should not come close to an infected person’s body fluid and tissues. It includes semen, vaginal secretions, blood, and saliva. People that have been infected with Marburg are very contagious in the later stages of the disease.
Always follow the infection-control procedure. If you are working in the medical field, such as health care workers, you should wear protective clothing. Among the protective gears are the masks, gowns, eye shields, and gloves. Thus, keep the infected people isolated and away from others. Proper disposal of needles is also crucial, as well as sterilization of other instruments.
Also, do not handle remains. The bodies of the people who have died from Marburg disease are still considered to be contagious. There are specially organized and trained teams of experts that should bury the remains. They are using appropriate safety equipment.
There are a lot of known strains of Hantavirus floating around. The said virus is considered to be airborne. Rodents are most likely the carrier of the disease. Various species of rodents carry different strains, and it is known to cause illness to humans. The two most known strain is the hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome, also known as HFRS and the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome or the HPS.
3.1 History of Hantavirus
The HFRS was first identified during the Korean War. Meanwhile, the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome or the HPS affected the Southwestern part of the United States has an outbreak in 1993.
As follows, the severe case of HFRS causes acute kidney failure. As for the HPS, it causes the affected person’s lungs to be filled with fluid or known as edema. The mortality rate of HFRS is 1 to 15 percent, while the HPS is at 38 percent. The United States encountered the most recent outbreak of Hantavirus (the HPS variety) at Yosemite National Park I the later months of 2012.
There are no vaccines for Hantavirus yet. But you can follow these steps to lower down your risk of being infected.
Avoid going to places where rodents leave their droppings. Keep in mind that you should wear rubber gloves and masks that can cover your nose and face before going to a place where you will be exposed to mouse droppings. Use a disinfectant to clean and sanitize areas where mouse feces can be seen, so that the infected dust will not spread in the air. Try to look for holes in your homes and seal it to avoid the rodents getting in. Trap the rodent in and around our house to decrease the population. Also, avoid leaving food out in your home or while camping as rodents are attracted to them. Before you enter an area known to have rodents in it, air it out first.
Another reason to stay away from rodents is this different BSL-4 virus. The Lassa virus is also carried by a species of rats that can be found in West Africa called the Mastomys. This virus is airborne, especially when you stay in a place that has feces of rats.
4.1 Lassa Outbreak
However, for humans, it can only spread through direct contact with bodily secretions. Lassa fever has a 15 to 20 percent mortality rate that causes the death of about 5000 a year in West Africa. The most known affected area is the Sierra Leone and Liberia.
The symptoms usually start from fever, and some retrosternal pain (pain behind the chest). It can then progress to facial swelling, mucosal bleeding, encephalitis, and deafness. Thankfully, researchers and medical professionals have successfully found a cure for treating Lass fever. It is an antiviral drug that can cure the early stages of the disease.
The prevention of Lassa fever depends on “community hygiene.” It is best to promote proper hygiene in the whole area to keep rodents away from homes. Among the practical measures are storing food and grains in rodent-proof containers, proper disposal of garbage that is far from houses, and maintains a clean house.
Thousands of years ago, the virus that causes smallpox reportedly wiped out hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This time, the animals are not the carrier, since the virus is only carried by and contagious with humans. There are different know types of smallpox disease. It can result from an infection that ranges from mild to fatal. The common symptoms of smallpox are fever, blistering and oozing pustules, and rash that is developed in the skin. Thankfully, in 1979, the disease was declared eradicated. It is the result of worldwide due to the implementation of the vaccine.
5.1 Prevention and Treatment
While some antiviral drugs may help treat it or prevent the smallpox disease from getting worse, there is no treatment for it that has been proven effective in people sick with the fever. The smallpox vaccine can prevent smallpox.
Thanks to the researchers and medical professionals, there is a vaccine to protect people from smallpox. If ever there is an outbreak, the health professionals would use the smallpox vaccine to control it. To prevent the condition from getting worse, some may use antiviral drugs to help treat the infection. Hence, smallpox can be restricted by a vaccine.
Before you make contact with the virus, the vaccine can protect you from getting sick. Within 3-7 days after being exposed, the vaccine might protect you from the infection. If ever you will still get the disease, you will likely be less sick compared to the person that is unvaccinated. However, once you have been exposed and develop the smallpox rash, the vaccine can no longer help you.
However, the smallpox vaccine is not available to the general public since smallpox has been eradicated, and the virus no longer exists in nature. But there is enough available vaccine to cover every person in the United States if ever smallpox outbreak will occur.
Rabies is one of the most popular and longest viruses that is ever known. Rabies is dated back in 2300 B.C. According to history, the record of disease came when Babylonians went mad and died after being bitten by dogs. Rabies is caused by lyssavirus, including the Australian bat lyssavirus and the rabies virus. The disease is spread when an infected animal bites or scratches human or other animals. The saliva from an infected animal can also carry rabies if the saliva comes into contact with mouth, eyes, or nose.
6.1 Exposure To Rabies
Being exposed to rabies these days is still possible but most likely rare, especially in the U.S. It usually occurs if you got bitten by an animal that has a disease. If not untreated after the exposure, the virus will attack the central nervous system, and for the worst case, death will occur.
As follows, the symptoms of advance infection include raging, delirium, and hallucinations. In some cases, violent behavior will occur. Some claim that the action of the person infected is like those of zombies. Notably, rabies is not airborne, but once a person got infected, medical attention is a must.
Tips to Prevent Rabies
As required by law, pet owners should vaccine their dogs and cats against rabies. All cats and dogs more than four months old should be vaccinated against rabies. Also, owners should keep track of their vaccination at all times.
6.3 Control Your Pets
Keep your pets under control. The law of animal control prohibits owners from letting their pets to roam unsupervised. Most likely, pets that just roam free might be exposed to rabies when unattended by the owners. If you spot stray and unknown dogs or cats, leave them alone. Loose animals may have been exposed to disease and attack others. Keep your pets away from it too. You could report it to animal control.
6.4 Keep Your House Free From Wild Animals
Stay away from wild animals. Avoid wild animals even if they tend to be friendly. Do not tempt a wild animal to eat from your hand. Also, do not fear them, just respect them and stay away from them. Educated young children to follow these tips. Wild animals are not pets, so don’t keep one. Even a skunk or raccoon born in captivity may also be a carrier of rabies. Local laws prohibit wild animals to kept as pets. There are no approved vaccines or known quarantine for wild animals.
6.5 Seal Off Openings
Make your property unappealing to wild animals. Seal off openings in attics, basements, and under your porches. If you have a chimney, you could cap it. Feed your pets indoors to avoid luring the wild animals and keep your trash can tightly closed.
In case your pets are scratched, bitten, or have contact with wild animals, immediately call your pet away from it. If possible, confine the wild animal but, do not touch it or risk yourself from the exposure. To prevent disclosure of saliva in an open wound, experts recommend that you refrain from touching, handling, or examining your pets at least two hours following the incident.
6.6 Animal Attack
If you are put into a situation where you should handle our pet shortly after the fight, it is advisable if you wear heavy gloves and wash your hands with soap and water afterward. Thus, contact your doctor or local health department for some advice to determine whether to not you might have direct exposure to rabies. Then, call your local animal control agency to seek information about testing the wild animals for disease and make sure to follow up on your pet.
One of the leading causes of death in the tropics and subtropics area is an infection caused by the dengue virus. The symptoms are usually a high fever, rashes, and severe headache. In the worst case, it will lead to bleeding. However, dengue is treatable and is not contagious. You can get easily infected if a mosquito that carries the virus bit you. There are a lot of dengue cases that have been cured, but some eventually lead to death.
7.1 Dengue Infection
Just like another mosquito-borne virus, such as zika and chikungunya, the infection spreads with a mosquito bite. Thus, when a mosquito bites an infected human, the mosquito becomes a carrier. The mosquito is not affected by dengue fever, only humans. Furthermore, when the human is infected with dengue and mosquito bites that infected person, that mosquito will now be a carrier. As follows, the CDC shared that 75 percent of all dengue infections show no symptoms. About 20 percent of dengue symptoms are mild, but 5 percent develop severe and life-threatening symptoms.
7.2 Treatment For Dengue
How Is Dengue Treated?
As of now, there is no specific antiviral treatment for dengue, but that does not mean it is not incurable. Most likely, the treatment is composed of supportive care to help the patient with the symptoms. Professionals usually use analgesics, hydrations, bed rest monitoring the patients through their infections. If you suspect dengue symptoms during or after your travel, seek medical attention.
Many health organizations gave these tips to prevent dengue infection.
When traveling to countries where it has a case of dengue virus, packs some long-sleeves and long pants. Treat clothes with repellants such as permethrin. Make sure to have and use an EPA registered mosquito repellant such as DEET. Consider using netting for mosquito protection if staying in an area with lots of mosquitoes.
Inline, it is advisable to keep your doors and windows screen closed to avoid mosquito’s going into closed areas. Refrain from areas with standing water, especially at high mosquito activity like dusk and dawn. Some of the countries provide health kits for travelers to help them with dengue mosquito bites and mosquito-borne diseases.
Influenza is one of the common and known viruses worldwide. It is a viral infection that attacks that respiratory system of the person infected. It is best known as a fly, but there are different strains. Some of the known strains are the swine flu and bird’s flu that had caused a worldwide epidemic. The flu targets the nose, lungs, and throat but can be treated. Notably, influenza is different from stomach flu, which causes diarrhea and vomiting. Most likely, influenza resolves on its own. However, sometimes influenza and its complications can be fatal.
8.1 High Risk For Influenza
According to experts, people who are at higher risk of developing flu complications are young children (under 5) and children under 12 months. Adults who are aged 65, residents of nursing homes, and other long-term care facilities. Also, pregnant women and women up to two weeks postpartum. Most importantly, people with weak immune systems. Also, people who have a chronic illness, such as heart disease, liver disease, asthma, and diabetes.
There are available vaccines for influenza, and most likely, people can survive the infections. However, the infectious respiratory illness is still dangerous, as the virus constantly mutating and creating whole new strains. There are thousands of strains that exist at any given time, and many of them are harmless. The vaccines that are available in the United States cover about 40 percent of the strains that are at large each year.
There are different ways on how to prevent influenza. Vaccination is one of the common prevention methods. Also, washing your hands with soap and water, or using a hand sanitizer will be good combat. Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue every time you cough and sneeze. Most importantly, do not touch your face with unwashed hands. It is the easiest way for the germs to enter your body.
8.4 Give Your Immune System A Boost
As follows, here are some tips to boost your immune system. Many did not know that smiling and laughing can boost your immune system. The most common way to boost your immune system is by eating healthy and balanced meals. Exercise is also essential. Not only can it boost your immune system, and it also speeds up the recovery from the illness. To avoid infecting other people if you have the flu, stay at home for 24 house until your fever is gone without using fever-reducing medicine.
9. Corona Virus
Another life-threatening disease is the coronavirus. The most common names under this name are the severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus or MERS-Cov and the 2019 nCoV. Recently there is an epidemic of coronavirus.
On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization was alerted to multiple cases of pneumonia in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. The virus found did not match to any known virus and experts raised its concern for the possibility of a new strain.
Just a week late, January 7, 2020, the Chinese authorities had confirmed that they were able to identify the new virus. It is a new coronavirus, which is a family of viruses that includes the common cold, SARS, and MERS. It is temporarily named as the 2019-nCov.
9.1 Coronavirus Outbreak
As follows, as of January 29, 2020, the China National Health Commission confirmed that in their country alone, they already have 170 death and 7,711 cases. But according to reports, there are 170 infected people that have been cured and discharged.
Currently, WHO is working for hand on hand with the Chinese authorities and global experts ever since the day that they were informed. The experts in learning more about the virus, how it would affect people how are sick with it, how it can be treated, and what the countries can do to respond to the epidemic.
9.2 WHO Advisory
Since it is a coronavirus, it is already known to cause respiratory illness. WHO advises people on how to protect themselves, especially those who are around infected people. The organization released standard recommendations for the general public to reduce the exposure and transmission of the illness. It includes hand and respiratory hygiene and food practices.
Here is the list on how to prevent 2019 N-Cov:
Frequently wash your hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based rub. When coughing and sneezing, cover your nose and mouth with flex elbow or tissue. Immediately throw the tissue away and wash hands. If you ever feel you have a cough, fever, and difficulty breathing, get medical attention shortly. Also, if you have traveled. Share your travel history with your health care provider.
9.4 How To Avoid The Virus in Public Markets
As follows, when visiting live markets, especially in the areas that are currently experiencing cases of coronavirus, avoid direct unprotected contact with live animals and even the surfaces that are in contact with animals. Refrain from the consumption of raw or undercooked animal products. Be cautious in handling raw meat, milk, or any animal organs to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods.
Most importantly, be aware of what is happening. Watch the news and be informed of what is going on. Be updated about the recent coronavirus and follow the precautions.